Speaker 0 00:00:00 Welcome to the more happiness, less suffering podcast. I'm Casey Howe, senior meditation and Dharma teacher for insight.
Speaker 1 00:00:07 And I'm dr. Monisha bossa psychiatrist in our little podcasting studio in orange County, California. We bring wisdom from the couch and the cushion to your real life questions and struggles. So grab a cup of tea and join us. We're so glad you're here. Welcome back to the more happiness, less suffering podcast as always. We are so glad to have you here with us. And today we are super stoked because we have another guest with us.
Speaker 0 00:00:40 Yeah, we have with us today, one of my Dharma bros, um, and my favorite rapper of all time, Bob city also known as Castro. Polix so welcome. Hey, what's going on guys? Thank you guys for having me. Yeah, for sure. For sure. Yeah. So yeah, just a little intro into, into Bob. He's a long time a Dharma friend, and like I mentioned, my, my favorite rapper, he just, his lyrics are totally astounding. Um, he's a teacher and through his music, um, just a wonderful Dharma teacher. So we'll talk a little bit today about his journey, how he got to where he is today.
Speaker 1 00:01:19 Yeah. So why don't we start with the journey? Why don't you tell us kind of how you got here, you know, kind of the path of where you grew up and a little bit about your family and sort of your career evolution.
Speaker 0 00:01:32 All right. Um, okay. Well, I, uh, I grew up in orange County. Uh, I was born in Huntington beach, uh, grew up in Anaheim and, um, my life was, uh, it was, it was beautiful. Um, it was very colorful at the same time, uh, which helped, uh, give some wisdom and lessons, I guess. Um, but yeah, so I was born in Anaheim. Um, my mom left me and my dad, so it was just me and my dad. Um, and that was like in the eighties when, uh, when it seemed like some, like a lot of dads weren't around at the time and some of the, some of our areas where I grew up, um, but my dad was there and so I was blessed to have my dad. Um, he was an Italian man from New York. Um, just a strong dude. Um, very loving, very loving was always super, just super, very loving and compassionate.
Speaker 0 00:02:25 That was one thing that stands out to me now. And I think that was definitely a huge seed in my life, uh, through my whole existence and path, you know? Um, so I grew up in Anaheim. I went to Catholic school for a while. Um, had some unique situations there. I believe that was a huge, uh, part of my path as well. Cause that was one of the places I seen where for me, religion and history and just this knowledge were given kinda didn't match up per se in my, in my mind or my spirit. And I think that was, uh, a little, a nice little token or a point of my path you could say. Um, and so it went from there. I went to public school in Placentia, Yorba Linda school district. Um, and when I was a teenager, man, I started hanging out with some of the wrong people, right.
Speaker 0 00:03:14 People you could say and started doing some street art and graffiti and just hanging out with all the street kids and stuff. Uh, again, my mom wasn't there. So my dad was really working all the time. I was a latchkey kid, um, was home alone a lot. And, um, just was out in the Avenue with the kids and hanging out and got into a lot of questionable stuff and drug abuse and stuff like that. But I always loved making music and I love creating. And so luckily I had these beautiful ways to express myself and my confusion and emotion. And so I kept always my foot in my mind in some sort of art, whether it's music or drawing. And so I feel like that was something that really kept me afloat and moving along in my own spirit and my own path. Um, you know, I was young.
Speaker 0 00:04:02 I had a child at 17. Um, I went to juvenile hall a couple of times when I was 14 and 16. So there was a lot of events that were very colorful, but I always had this, uh, uh, Nate spirit of goodness, or I don't know, just this creative thing in me that I always listened to. Um, me and my friend, Ian, we would be out at parties and stuff and we'd get this little feeling like, I don't know, something doesn't feel right. We should go and we would leave and then we'd find out something happened later. There was a fight or some sort of the police came or something happened. And so we always honored each other's innate listening to what's going on. And I feel like that was another, uh, real quarter in my arcade game of life. You could say that really told me to listen deeply into my own being.
Speaker 0 00:04:50 Um, and then, uh, I started just reading books, different books, uh, conversations with God and, and, you know, the outcomist and all these books that a lot of us get introduced to. And that was a real starting on my path of the Dharma and meditating and things like that. And, um, I haven't looked back really. I love it. You know, um, I found a monk named Azan Braum and he is the head monk in Perth, Australia. And I started listening to Dharma talks from him and people call him the Seinfeld of, of Buddhism. Um, he's, he's a little bit different, um, but he's really real with his humanity and what goes on. And so that really brought me into Buddhism and the Dharma. And from there, I went and went to this group in long beach to sit and meditate and listen to a Dharma talk. And, uh, there was this teacher there named Casey Howe and, um, little did I know that would spark a friendship and, uh, in a partnership in Dharma and life that would just lead us to a podcast studio. Yeah. Yeah. But that's a, those are some of the highlights.
Speaker 2 00:06:03 It's awesome. So how old were you when you first came across those books that kind of turned your interest towards the Dharma?
Speaker 0 00:06:11 I was, I was in my early twenties, I would say 19. Um, yeah, the conversations with God book really. Um, one of my friends gave me that book. Um, luckily I had a dear friend named Ryan Smith. Uh, we don't talk too much anymore. Um, but him in my life, he was always, you know, we did a lot of graffiti and we were always in the street and there was just, there was always stuff around us, but he always, he always talked about God and, and love and, and our infinite being. And so being in these environments, we always had these philosophy talks and it was so beautiful. And so I, he gave me this book and I, and I was just blown away by it. And it really shifted my perception and just loosened up some of my own, you know, mental holding ons. You could say attachments. So I would say early twenties is when I really started reading and, and, and digesting, you know?
Speaker 2 00:07:09 Yeah. And this dichotomy, you know, these different energies that you're talking about, like being, being in the streets and doing certain things, being a certain groups of people. Um, and I know from your early work, um, create, uh, creatively with music, you know, had different energies to it compared to what you do now. Um, how was it working within those groups and friends and energies as you, um, you know, we talked about transformation last time. Uh, you really, you, you, you, like you said, you had that innate spark in you, but you know, creatively really tapping into that and owning that and kind of transforming your whole persona, you know, into more, just kind of living that quote unquote truth kind of cheesy living your truth, but you really do. And, um, so maybe talk about that because I think there's a lot of us that kind of want to change. Um, but then we have friends and environments and stuff that kind of know us as somebody else. So how's that been for you?
Speaker 0 00:08:12 Yeah. You know, I'm glad you asked that. Um, actually yesterday I had this, uh, this feeling of that, that I wanted to just send out an encouragement kind of post or something to people in that, that same situation where you want to change, or you're, you're doing something new, maybe you're, you're stopping, um, a bad habit, an addiction, or you're taking on some new practice, meditation, yoga, um, just something to better yourself and your environment. Isn't so accepting of it, or it's very different from what you'd normally do. I just want to, I, I think that that's a unique situation and to just remind people to hang on and keep going. Um, I've been told by a lot of people, you know, in the hip hop community, not a lot of people, but some people have made some, I'm not keeping it real or things of that nature.
Speaker 0 00:08:58 But to me, keeping it real was, um, not being honest with my emotions and drinking away my problems and staying intoxicated to my realities and not, um, becoming in touch with why I have reactions and the emotional background behind these things and which is real right. That's keeping it real. Um, but some people may say, you know, um, you're not doing this or, you know, you have family members who act like, who are you to do that? You know, I think that's a big energy out there. And so what I did is, um, what I do still to this day, um, you know, some days it's hard, some days you do question that who am I to do this? Um, but lately I've been just going over my life and reminding myself these things that I've gone through, you know, these, um, maybe, um, pitfalls or, you know, you gotta hit the bottom to see what it is.
Speaker 0 00:09:49 I remind myself all of these things that I've been through and that that's who I am to be this person today. You know? Um, well, who are you to talk about meditating, Bob, like listen to your old music? It's like, well, listen to my old music. I was a very mad person. I was very confused and very frustrated. And now I'm sitting here, I'm explaining how to articulate some more emotions instead of being aggressive towards people and, and doing that. And that's who I am to be here to make this change, you know, um, and really owning that the, the ups, the downs of all of it, just staying on course with my path and knowing my truth and owning it. Um, you inspire me to do that. Uh, Jason inspires me to do that. I had a dear friend, his name's, um, Fritz, and he was on Instagram.
Speaker 0 00:10:37 And he's very outspoken, uh, to some people, especially now regarding politically spiritually mask, whatever you may want to say, some people may agree with them or not. But the one thing I noticed about him was he spoke his truth and he was a hip hopper who did it, and a man, and he talked about his emotions and he talked about everything and I was like, this guy's a superhero. And I just was like, I want to be like that. And so I just tried to a little bit more, be honest with what I am, what I'm doing, who I am, um, you know, uh, being a man and being vulnerable with your emotions and being vulnerable with your path and these changes it, it's hard. Um, you know, some people make some comments here and there. Um, I deal with a lot of MCs and a lot of people who are creative with words. So they'll find really creative ways to still try to shoot you down.
Speaker 0 00:11:28 Exactly. Um, but I just stayed constant. And one thing now is that that innate spark in me that knows my truth. It weighs, it weighs more than anything else now, all of it. Um, so I would just say the, um, acknowledging of that truth inside of you and knowing that you can't, it's not going to be validated by anybody. It's going to be validated by you. If it doesn't hurt you or anybody else, and it makes you feel joy, then you should probably try to pursue it. Um, and know that it's not going to be easy. I think that's it. Um, anything worth, it's not going to be easy. I think that's something big, you know? Um, but yeah, that's, that's kind of regarding that, you know, cause I still have some guilt or something just from my old music. Like, you know, I put out some of these songs and if someone hears like, you know, someone's like, man, I listened to some of your first stuff, bro.
Speaker 0 00:12:26 Like, what are you saying? But I love it and embrace it. Cause that was this very, very angry young man who just was like so upset. So viciously mad, so angry, you know? Um, and I was expressing it in so many ways and I see when I was her performer, I was always, I would not always drunk, but we'd be drunk and just wiling out. And, and I was just mad trying to make other people mad. And when I tapped into that and really saw that in it and acknowledged it, it really changed a lot of things, you know, cause then I realized like how many other people are like that with me on stage off stage, you know? And then I think being honest with myself, I feel other men or other people kind of take their armor off with me, you know, like, Oh, you're being honest. I can be honest.
Speaker 1 00:13:14 And I think it's beautiful that you honor that in some ways that that was the starting point of your journey and that even though it's not the type of music that you make today, it means something because it was where you were at then and somebody from the outside can actually see this transformation that is occurring, you know, from beginning to where you are now. And in some ways I think when you do that, you give other people permission to do that too, right. To have their own journey, to start wherever they are and, and then, you know, evolve, however they need to. Um, I'd like to ask you, you know, kind of what your thoughts are on sort of the intersections between your creativity and your meditation practice. Like as you kind of deepened your meditation practice, you know, over the years, how has that influenced your creativity and, and vice versa?
Speaker 0 00:14:09 So I think just putting the insights through my practice, into my music in an articulated way is, is for me something that's really dear because through that, I think some people can hear maybe a creative metaphor and it's like, Oh, maybe that sits with them some way, you know? And even if they interpret it their own way, which creatively does happen, some people have come to me like, man, when you said this and it meant that, and it had nothing to do with that, but it was so beautiful. I was like, yeah, because who am I to kind of take that away too. Right. Um,
Speaker 1 00:14:44 And I love that. I love the idea that, you know, some people might hear something, you know, inspirational or thought provoking or something that changes them, you know, maybe through, uh, you know, you, you went to one of Casey's talks and you were changed, you know, you read a book and you were changed. Somebody might listen to your music and be changed. And I just loved that idea that there's not just one way, you know, but that we never quite know what we might hear or listen to or read and, uh, and find something that really, you know, resonates with us in this way. So, and I love your point about honesty, you know, both on the path and with creativity because that's, that's hard, it's hard to be honest in that way, you know? Um, it just requires such a vulnerability with yourself and with other people. But I think when you can stay honest and that way, anything creative that's generated just comes from such a beautiful place.
Speaker 2 00:15:40 Yeah. Yeah. And it's the, it's the best kind of art, you know? Cause when I, when I listened to you and by the way, if you're listening to Castro, polic, sometimes he'll just put out these freestyles and you just send his car and he's just rapping or whatever. And it's my favorite because it's amazing. And, and when you're true to yourself and when you're authentic and you're coming from that place, I think people could really feel that, you know, it's like the best kind of art. Like I mentioned, it's like, um, yeah, it's just coming from that really core human place. Right. And, um, you can't, you can't fake that people could try and it's like, yeah, whatever, you know, but you're really coming from that place. And also to, uh, being a Dharma friend of, of, of you and, and seeing that your commitment to the practice, you know, really shows.
Speaker 2 00:16:32 And I think when we're looking out, we're reaching out, we're listening to Dharma talks and podcasts, we're reading books and all of this stuff. We're trying to, to be the best versions of ourselves. And we want to follow people, um, and listen to people that have suffered through that change, you know, have taking, taken on different things. Um, and it's not easy, you know, the practice isn't easy, meditation's not easy meeting are the moment as it is. Isn't easy, you know, you and I have great discussions of just using the Dharma when, when times are not, not easy and, and, and how that, that helps us, you know, transform those moments. So, you know, you're someone who puts in the work and, and then we see the fruition of that, you know, in your, in your music and who you are and whatnot. And, and, and yeah, like I mentioned, like you could hear it.
Speaker 2 00:17:32 Thank you for sure. Thank you. And thank you for, uh, for providing the teachings, my friend. Oh yeah, yeah, yeah. I just, we're just giving back, you know, I just think of all the sacrifices of my teachers. Um, one thing I think about, you know, teachers have a certain level when I look at them and they're just free and I'm thinking they don't have to do this. They don't have to be here. They don't have to be, you know, teaching Dharma in the heat for, you know, for eight hours a day. Like they could just be chilling, they could be free. So I always like to give back. Um, but one thing that I really like, I love one year brands, um, support humans. Um, this is, I just feel like you have such a beautiful heart and, and that brand, uh, is just perfect, you know, that the support human brands and the posts and, and whatnot that you put out on, on that social media account. Can you talk a little bit about the origin of the support human brand?
Speaker 0 00:18:37 Yeah, yeah, definitely. Thank you. Thank you. Um, so the support humans, um, it was an idea of me and my friend Celso had came up with, at a job, um, shouts to sell. So, um, so we were, he, and actually he's my friend who put me on to Dharma. He introduced me to John Braum. Yeah. So he's like, he's my guy right there. Um, so we were talking about support humans and he came up with a little design and he's like, you know, we were just talking about it. And I was like support humans. And he's like, man, this is cool. And, and that came from a point when me and him were both kind of just discovering Dharma talks and just trying to be supportive humans of each other in our own kind of path of discovery and a path of discovery. That's different to whatever I think is, you know, normal or normal, then not now.
Speaker 0 00:19:28 Um, so, and it was just that to be supportive of, of humanity and be supportive of friends and supportive of humanness, um, a place to be a real human being, um, vulnerable, sensitive, um, and just who we are. I think a lot of us through our own, you know, conditioning or just in life, we have a lot of shells or a lot of labels and things that we keep attached. And sometimes those don't hold up the whole time. I don't think, um, I mean, you put a label on something, eventually the label's gonna come off the adhesive, it just goes right. Um, but sometimes we hold onto those labels. And so I think that was a part of it for me and him was just discovering our own labels and what we wanted to take off. And we came up with a cool design and got some shirts printed.
Speaker 0 00:20:18 Um, we got some shirts printed and the first few batches of shirts, we were donating some of the profits to just little nonprofits here and there. I mean, we weren't doing much, it was like 50 bucks, 20 bucks, you know, but it was kind of just this supportive thing. Um, it kept moving and growing and everybody I talked to about it really liked it. And, and I just inside was like, I can't let go of it, you know? And so I don't let go of it. I'm building with it more. But, um, it's just about that. Just support humans, um, in whatever they, we, we need each other. Um, I think now's the time that we need to remember that whether it's, uh, political, um, the COVID, the mask, any kind of situation or any adversity, a religious adversity, sports teams, whatever, we're all against each other right now.
Speaker 0 00:21:03 But I think we really all need to realize we do all need each other, right? Like I'm the person who you might see on Facebook who says something about a mass that you don't agree with might actually be the person who's preparing your salad and the person who you might not agree with. Cause the way they dress might actually be the person who's wheeling in your grandmother into surgery. Um, these small things that I don't think we realize and it's these labels, right. But the humanness of us all, and that's kind of the core of it is to recognize that we're all human and that we need each other. Um, that's our kind of motto, support humans. We all we got, you know, um, and it just comes to that, that for me, it's really just this core humanness, this core humanist and just us being us and just putting out. And, uh, part of it is the graffiti writer in me wants to just put out positive messages on people, through garments. If you just have like the graffiti writer wants to put his name up everywhere. If I just put up support humans and inspire smiles and be beautiful everywhere, then that's just like, to me, it's just like these messages everywhere. Right. It's just like these little ripples of positivity through this ocean, you know?
Speaker 1 00:22:11 That's awesome. Yeah. That's like Casey, what you always talk about, about how, like, when we talk about poetry, like how poetry historically is just in books, you know, and it's kind of like tucked away. It's not the messages aren't sort of out and about in the world and, um, how much more we could all be impacted on a day to day basis if we were seeing those messages just in our environment. And yeah, we were just talking also the other day about how it really is these very, very small acts of kindness and connectedness and compassion that go so far. You know, um, I was telling Casey about, um, you know, how somebody one time had brought me tea, you know, in, in this Indian restaurant while I was waiting for my food. Cause they thought I looked very tired and it was probably like five years ago, but it has never left me, you know, that, um, anytime there's a compassion meditation and somebody says, think about an, you know, a time of compassion. That's, that's what comes to my mind. You know? So it's kind of, I, I, both of those things that you said about how it's just those very small acts that can go so far and, and also how these messages, the written messages, the audio, the music, you know, that it just starts to, you know, I think the environments that we create for ourselves eventually that becomes who we are, you know? And so the more we can put those messages out there, the more we're sort of doing our part to create more beautiful environments. Yeah,
Speaker 0 00:23:47 Yeah, absolutely. And, um, you know, one thing I, I suggest to a lot of my friends who do hip hop and, and are really engulfed in the, in the culture is to just take like a fast of lyrics. Um, I suggest anybody, if you're listening to music or whatever, take up, take a faster, or at least acknowledge what you're putting into your mind every day. Um, when I really did that, I stopped listening to lyrics. Like I love hip hop. Like I love creative writing. Like I'll listen to the darkest stuff, but if it's creative and it's just like, Aw man, it's juice, but I still have to acknowledge that effect on me emotionally and mentally and subconsciously. And when I've taken a, a diet off that when I literally took a two week fast off of lyrics and then I went and listened to it and it's, you'd be amazed at that space.
Speaker 0 00:24:33 And how things like that do influence you and, and doing that was another thing that kind of influenced, like I really asked myself, like, do I really want to put this aggression into the world so much? You know, like, that's the thing to ask yourself too, like we're putting out this music, like, are, are we, are we helping or not, you know, um, at some point, am I just expressing myself or just throwing another bag of FTU out into the world because I'm upset, you know? Um, and that's something that I, that was inspiring, um, on my music as well, you know? Um, and as a creative person, I think we all have to ask that sometimes what that real intention is.
Speaker 1 00:25:10 Yeah. That balance between self expression and then the impact that it will have on somebody else and really kind of acknowledging and holding that in any creative expression, both of those things are happening, you know, but we do have to be aware of, of both. I really agree with them.
Speaker 0 00:25:27 Yeah. Yeah. Cause I was, I was listening to this new artist and I, I really appreciate his writing, but I definitely saw how it kind of affected me when I listened to the whole album, you know? And so I definitely balance what I listened to. Um, cause I, I do do music. I do a lot of hip hop. Um, and in my path, I, I, I ha I still hang out with everybody. I don't just choose if you know, it was funny. Like we identify with our paths, you know, and you're like, Oh, I'm not going to associate with these people anymore. But then in, in, in, through my own discovery, I realized like that I don't ever want to be that person. I want to be around everybody. I want to love everybody. I don't care what you do. Um, you know, I hang around all my homies.
Speaker 0 00:26:05 They love me. I love them. We don't hurt each other. It's beautiful. And like, who am I to be, to cut any human being off, you know? And so I feel like, but there's a balance there too. So I definitely see that as a creative person, the influence of, of our intention really, you know? Um, cause, cause I only say that cause like yesterday I was literally just listening to like Yogananda's album all day and just like trying to balance balance out my own. You know, I've been listening and doing some mixed downs for some other artists and like really trying to get my psyche in, you know, um, the harmonium man. Right. I love Yogananda's
Speaker 2 00:26:44 Hi.
Speaker 0 00:26:44 I love it. Actually the soul track 10 on the album hound of heaven, that poem hound to have I put up on my Instagram. Cause I read the whole poem. I literally with all yesterday for like three hours, I was just researching this poem, listening to it over and over crying. Like it's so amazing, you know, but it goes back to those words, those ripples are our expression of time, like man Yogananda, right? These teachers who like did these things and they're still like create these vibrational waves through the, you know, so it definitely matters how much we put out there. And that's a big part of my creativity, um, is being responsible for that, you know?
Speaker 2 00:27:26 Yeah. Going back to that intention, I think you, you know, you could express yourself in different ways, but if that intention is pure behind it, there's obviously very therapeutic aspects of, you know, say saints, you know, releasing anger and in a creative way and whatnot. But um, yeah, you could feel the intention behind it. Sometimes the intentions are just so pure. The hurt comes through his love and it's transformed and all that stuff. And, and then yeah, I think about that often, I think about yoga Nanda and you know, these great saints in the stages of kind of all times and that what is it about who they are and the vibration that, that they're at, that they are still creating change in, in, in human beings. Like their intention is still living. That's really powerful. Um, to, to go all the way. I'm always been like an enlightenment or bust, you know, it's like, yeah, we can, we could learn a little, sit a little and then teach a little or we can go within our own selves, go all the way and then help everyone. Like maybe it just keeps going. If we keep going, then they can keep going. If we stop, then you know what we can give that stops. So, you know, it has to just, you know, keep deepening and keep broadening our experience, you know? Um, so thank you so much, man, for coming, man. I've just, I think we could, he's gonna come back. We can talk, we could talk forever. He's going to rap for us actually next time. Both of you we'll wrap for it. Boy. I'm not going to rap, but
Speaker 0 00:29:08 Yeah. And if you guys do go find any of my music out there, look for the ones that say featuring Casey house.
Speaker 2 00:29:15 There's a couple of gems out there. Yeah. Yeah. It's so cool. Bob samples, some of my Dharma talks and stuff. It's so cool. I'm just sees like, Hey, you're on a song. I was like, really? And I'm just like talking, I'm just doing my thing. It's so cool. Remind me, where can we find this? Find it, you and your music and humans,
Speaker 0 00:29:38 A support humans is a support humans.com and also support humans on Instagram. Uh, my music you can find on Spotify or YouTube iTunes anywhere, any platform it's caster, Pollux, CAS, T O R P O L L U X. Um, a lot of my new music coming out is with my partner, Dustin Hodges. He's a producer. He's also my Dharma brother. Uh, best friend guide, uh, just all around. Great dude. We've been doing music for 15 years, so it's Castro Polix and Dustin Hodges. Uh, we got some music out there. There's a song, a video called honest living on YouTube. Uh, honest living. If you just put honest living castor Pollux on YouTube, the video will come up and uh, that's where you can find my stuff on Instagram. It's it's caster. Polix nice. Yes. Thank you. Yeah.
Speaker 3 00:30:30 Thanks for being here. Thank you. So, uh, yeah, like always, we're going to end with a little meditation time, so hopefully you can join us, give you just a moment or soda and I get into a nice meditative posture again, if you're driving or something like this, just go ahead and allow these words to kind of reverberate throughout your being drop it in the pool. Like the ripples that Bob was talking about, allow these words to ripple throughout your consciousness. And one thing that Bob talked about was we all need each other and that was so beautiful, such a great example of truth of injury interdependence, and then we're all human.
Speaker 3 00:31:31 So maybe just coming into a place of stillness for a moment, taking a few breasts that are a little bit deeper than usual. And as you're breathing recognize we're all breathing, all Centene beings, sharing the same air, breathing in, breathing out and paying attention to that human quality, those human qualities that we all share is kindness is tenderness strength. This desire to be connected to that purpose, to be loved, be appreciated and reminding ourselves that all beings have this within them and seeing if your heart could open to this. And when we think of the labels and we think of the different beliefs, different concepts, different interests beyond all of that is his humanness. So maybe spending a few moments just in your heart of hearts, the part of you that wants all of that, this love approval and appreciation, maybe just tending to it with your attention and from this place wishing others well, universally, equanimity, friends, neutral people, enemies from this place of connection, sending them all this sincere desire for them to be happy. May all beings everywhere with that exception. I mean he all be happy and free from suffering.